【英国卫报精读】《Vogue》杂志的种族歧视问题_the

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发布时间:2020-07-24 17:16

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*注:本文摘自年7月16日《英国卫报》

Vogue has a race problem

《Vogue》杂志的种族问题

1. In the current climate filled with so much blacktrauma, there’s a special significance in the Vogue Challenge – a celebration of black beauty and black bodies. The concept is simple: reimaginingcelebrated Vogue covers with yourself in place of the model or the celebrity. The challenge, which began on TikTok in May, then went viral on Twitter and Instagram, producing hundreds of covers. The beauty and inventivenessof many of the covers wereundeniable– and made you think black beauty would never be celebrated like this on the cover of US Vogue. It also underlined the emptiness of US Vogue’s editor-in-chief Anna Wintour’s apology to black creatives: “Vogue has not found enough ways to elevate and give space to black editors, writers, photographers, designers and other creators.”

在当前满是黑人创伤的背景下,Vogue挑战赛有着特殊意义,那就是赞美黑人的美丽和身体。挑战赛的理念很简单:自己上Vogue,重塑杂志封面。这项挑战于5月份在Tiktok上开始,后来风靡ins和twitter,现在已经有数百个杂志封面了。许多封面的美感和创意不容置疑,黑人的美从没有像现在这样在美国在职封面得到如此的赞扬,这也突显了美国版《Vogue》的主编安娜·温图尔(Anna Wintour)向黑人创意人士道歉的空洞之处:“Vogue”没有找到足够的方法来提升黑人编辑、作家、摄影师、设计师和其他创作者的地位, 也没能给他们足够的空间。”

2. The problem is that she has been the editor for three decades. If she really cared about black voices and understood systemic racism on a deeper level, she would have already made some changes to the system. She’s had enough time and wieldsenough power to change things. But perhaps her reluctancegoes deeper. “I wanna say one thing: Dame Anna Wintour is a colonial broad,” said her former colleague André Leon Talley on Sandra Bernhard’s show on SiriusXM. “She’s a colonial dame. I do not think she will ever let anything get in the way of her white privilege.” A recent New York Times article, meanwhile, speaks of how employees of colour “faced ignorance and lazy stereotyping” from white bosses around the subject of black culture.

问题是她当编辑已经30年了。如果她真的关注黑人的声音,真的能从更深层次上理解系统性种族歧视的问题,她早就会做出一些改变。她有足够的时间和力量来改变,但也许,她的不情愿是更深层次的。她的前同事安德烈·莱昂·塔利在SiriusXM的桑德拉·伯恩哈德秀上说,“我想说一件事情:安娜·温图尔夫人是一个殖民注意主义的女性,她是支持殖民主义,我认为她不会让任何事影响她的白人特权。”与此同时,《纽约时报》最新的一篇文章就黑人文化这一主题谈到有色人种员工遭遇来自白人老板的“无知和懒惰的刻板印象。”

3. The lack of evolved conversations around black and brown identity can be starklyfelt around the fashion industry. Major brands are being called out for racism that is visible on the shop floor and systemic and coded. The experiences of PoC workers being belittled and ignored by white superiors (microaggressionsby any other name) were all too common in the testimonies of black and brown workers who spoke out amid the current racial reckoning.

在时尚界,人们可以明显地感觉到,对黑人和棕色人种身份的讨论是一成不变的。各大品牌的种族歧视现象在工厂随处可见,而且这种歧视是系统且隐晦的。黑人和棕色人种在当前的种族清算中大声疾呼,在他们的证词中,PoC工人被白人上司贬低和忽视的经历(以任何其他名义的微侵犯)都非常常见。

4. Wintour’s statement seems especially lacking in actual action when you consider the stats. The Pudding did a deep dive into the skin tone of US Vogue’s cover stars. One of its findings was that three out of 81 models were black between 2000 and 2005. It’s improved over time but the models that did appear on the cover generally had a lighter skin tone, adhering to the eurocentric beauty ideal.

从统计数据来看,温图尔的声明似乎尤其缺乏实际行动。数据报道网站The Pudding深度研究了美国《Vogue》杂志封面明星的肤色,发现2000年到2005年的81名模特中,只有三个是黑人。随着时间的推移,情况有所改善,但是出现在封面上的模特通常肤色都比较浅,比较符合欧洲人的审美。

5. Beverly Johnson was US Vogue’s first black cover model, in 1974. “[My agent] said, ‘You’re on the cover.’ And I was like, ‘Oh, the cover of what?’ She said the cover of Vogue magazine. I remember my heart was racing just like it is now,” she told NPR in 2018.

贝弗利·约翰逊在1974年成为美国《Vogue》杂志的第一位黑色封面模特。“2018年,她告诉美国国家公共电台(NPR)记者,”(我的经纪人)说,‘你上了封面。’我说,‘哦,什么封面?她说,《Vogue》杂志的封面上。我记得当时我的心跳得很快,就像现在一样。”

6. But even the joy of this was covered in another reality. The reality of the Token. The idea that there is only one model of colour who is allowed to be present at any one time (similarly, André Leon Talley is the only known black member of staff at US Vogue). As the former model Grace Jones wrote in her autobiographyI’ll Never Write My Memoirs, “Beverly was one of the reasons I left the States. I knew that as long as she was in place she would get everything … One black model was all they needed and I would pick up the crumbs… [Beverly] was the token black model. They didn’t need two tokens.” Indeed, the next black model to appear on the cover of US Vogue wasn’t until three years later, in 1977, with Peggy Dillard. Fortysomething years later and Joan Smalls’ brilliant and searing testimony of racism in the fashion industry described the attitude towards her as “the token black girl”.

但是,即使是这样的换页也被一个事实所掩盖,那就是,黑人只是一种标志(没有种族歧视的标志。)任何时候都只能有一个有色人种模特出现(同样,安德烈·莱昂·塔利(Andre Leon Talley)是美国《Vogue》杂志唯一一名黑人员工)。前模特格蕾丝·琼斯在她的自传《我永远不会写回忆录》中写道:“贝弗利是我离开美国的原因之一。我知道只要她还在位,她就会掌控一切,他们只是需要一名黑人模特,而我就是那个捡起面包屑的人…贝弗利就是那个黑人标志,他们不需要两个标志。事实上,直到三年后的1977年,佩吉•迪拉德(Peggy Dillard)才成为下一个登上美国《Vogue》杂志封面的黑人模特。40多年后,琼·斯莫斯(Joan Smalls)在证词中称,时装界人士称她是“黑人象征。”

7. This tokenisticapproach is extended to fashion brands’ approach to their responses post-George Floyd, which have been characterised by their surface nature, treating racial issues like another trend. “The industry that profits from our black and brown bodies, our culture for constant inspiration, our music, and our images for their visuals have tiptoed around the issues. You’re part of the cycle that perpetuatesthese conscious behaviours,” said Smalls.

这种象征主义反映在时尚界对弗洛伊德事件的反应上,他们将弗洛伊德事件示威另一种流行趋势。斯莫斯说, “时尚界从我们黑色和棕色的身体中获利,从我们的文化中不断寻求灵感,而在他们的杂志中我们的音乐和形象都被小心翼翼地隐去,每个人都是这循环中的一部分,每个人都在促使这种有意识的行为长期存在。”

8. Denials of her departure notwithstanding, Wintour should be worried. Times are changing. Samira Nasr was just announced as the first editor of colour at Harper’s Bazaar since the magazine was founded in 1867, while British Vogue’s Edward Enninful has done amazing things with a radically race-conscious editorial agenda (Enninful posted selections of his favourites from the Vogue Challenge). “The world is changing right before our very eyes,” wrote the model Anok Yai in O magazine, “and we won’t be tolerant of intolerantany longer.” Tokenism is so last season.

尽管温图尔否认自己存在种族歧视,但她应该感到担忧。时代在改变。萨米拉·纳斯尔(Samira Nasr)刚刚被宣布为《时尚芭莎》(Harper 's Bazaar)自1867年创刊以来的首位有色人种编辑,而英国《时尚》(Vogue)杂志的爱德华·艾宁弗(Edward Enninful)在激进的种族意识编辑议程方面做出了令人惊叹的事情(艾宁弗在《时尚》挑战中发布了他最喜欢的作品)。“世界就在我们眼前改变,”模特Anok Yai在O杂志上写道,“我们再也不能容忍狭隘了。”在上一季中,象征主义是过去了。

精读解析

篇章结构

P1:Vogue杂志主编的种族歧视问题。

P2—P3:时尚界的种族歧视随处可见。

P4—P7:黑人模特只是没有种族歧视的象征。

P8:时代在改变,时尚界不能再有狭隘的种族主义。

重点单词

trauma /'trɔːmə/ n. 外伤;创伤(由心理创伤造成精神上的异常)

Counselling is helping him work through this trauma.

心理辅导正帮助他面对痛苦。

reimaginevt. 重新构想

These teams are partnering with the government’s existing policy and technical experts to re-imagine the way we do business and deliver services that work better and cost less.

这些团队参与改进现有政策,并与技术专家一起重新规划我们开展业务的方式,改善服务,让我们的工作更有效,成本更低。

go viral 快速散播; 风靡

How do you make something go viral?

你是如何让一件事情 像病毒一样迅速传播的?

inventiveness/in'ventivnis/有发明创造能力;独创性;独创能力

inventively adv. 有创造力地;率先的

inventive adj. 发明的;有发明才能的;独出心裁的

We have deep talents of inventiveness and exploration -- if we apply them.

我们有深刻的创造力和探索天赋——如果我们运用它们的话。

undeniable/ʌndɪ'naɪəb(ə)l/ adj. 无可争辩的;不可否认的;确定无疑的;确实优秀的;无懈可击的

First, he exposes in a bold way the real existence of American black people, including their undeniable racial identity, praise-worthy beauty and unescapable defects.

他们有着不可否认的种族身份,有着值得颂扬的美,也有着不容回避的弱点。

underline/ʌndə'laɪn/ vt. 在…下面画线;加强, 强调

In his speech he underlined several points.

他在讲话中强调了几点。

wield /wiːld/ vt. 挥舞;使用;行使

wield power 行使权力

They wield enormous political power.

他们行使巨大的政治权力。

reluctance/rɪ'lʌkt(ə)ns/ n. 不愿意;勉强

The police released Andrew with reluctance.

警方勉强把安德鲁放走了。

stereotype/'sterɪə(ʊ)taɪp/ n. 老套, 模式化的见解, 有老一套固定想法的人vt. 把…模式化, 使成陈规

sex stereotype 性别刻板印象

stereotyped image 刻板印象

I hate to buy into stereotypes.

我厌恶墨守成规。

starkly/'sta:kli/ adv. 严酷地;明显地;毫无掩饰地

starkness n. 严厉;质朴无华;严酷;明显

stark naked 赤身露体,一丝不挂

His actions were in stark contrast to his words.

他的行动同他说的话形成鲜明的对照。

belittle/bɪ'lɪt(ə)l/ vt. 轻视;贬低;使相形见小

It is wrong to belittle or neglect popularization.

轻视和忽视普及工作的态度是错误的。

microaggressionn. 轻度冒犯,微歧视

So is ghosting an example of microaggression? Well, microaggression is a noun.

那么切断联系是微歧视的一种表现吗?" 微歧视" 是个名词。

do a deep dive into深入研究

Curious about how and whether the ratings game was a good thing or not, I did a deep dive into this world and quickly discovered many problems with the reputation economy.

无所不在的打分究竟是好事还是坏事? 带着这个问题,我深入研究了“打分界”,并且很快发现了所谓“口碑经济”的很多问题。

adhere to 坚持;粘附;拥护,追随

Most people adhere to the church of their parents.

多数人都依附于父母的教会。

eurocentric/ˌjuərəuˈsentrik/ adj. 〈主英〉以欧洲为中心的,主要与欧洲(或欧洲人)有关的

To have denied them would have risked consigning Mr Cameron's leadership to the hell of Eurocentric rowing and rebellion that dogged his predecessor, John Major.

拒绝这两个选项,相当于冒险将卡梅伦的领导权交给可恶的疑欧派和对他的前任约翰·梅杰穷追不舍的党内造反者。

autobiography/ɔːtəbaɪ'ɒgrəfɪ/ n. 自传;自传文学

The series was based on the autobiographies of the author.

这部连续剧是根据那位作家的自传拍摄的。

crumb/krʌm/ n. 面包屑,碎屑;少许vt. 弄碎;捏碎

He dropped crumbs of cake all over the table.

他把蛋糕屑丢得满桌都是。

tokenistic象征性的;表面的

Whether he can fix them is another question: the Conservatives' old, tokenistic plan for a tax break for married couples, discussed again this week, is unlikely to help.

但是他能不能解决它们又是另一回事了:保守党曾有一个对已婚夫妇减免税收的计划,但早已年代久远,而且只是做做样子而已,这周却被重新提出来讨论,看样子不像能帮上什么忙。

tiptoe/'tɪptəʊ/ n. 脚尖;趾尖vi. 用脚尖走adv. 用脚尖adj. 踮着脚走的;偷偷摸摸的

on tiptoe 用脚尖地;急切地;悄悄地

stand on tiptoe 足尖站立

I stood tiptoe upon a little hill.

我踮着脚站在一座小山顶上。

perpetuate /pə'petʃʊeɪt/ vt. 使永存;使人记住不忘

self perpetuate 自生自存

perpetuating factor 维持因素

Giving these events a lot of media coverage merely perpetuates the problem.

媒体大量地报道这些事件只会使问题持续下去。

tolerant/'tɒl(ə)r(ə)nt/ adj. 容忍的;宽容的;有耐药力的

be tolerant of 对...容忍(或宽容)

fault tolerant system 容错系统

Her father, an equable and genial man, is tolerant of her spirited stubbornness.

她的父亲,一个平和可亲的人,能容忍她倔强的脾气。

intolerant/ɪn'tɒl(ə)r(ə)nt/ adj. 无法忍受的;偏狭的

They are deeply intolerant of all opposition.

他们对所有的反对意见都极为排斥。

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