【通透教育干货】2020-2021年CA主文书写作指导_the

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发布时间:2020-07-24 17:16

申请海外名校,GPA/雅思托福/SAT/GRE/GMAT决定了你是否有资格申请这所学校,而PS个人陈述在申请过程中更是必不可少!

你的PS不仅是招生官了解你重要的材料,还是决定你是否能够进入面试轮的依据之一。短短不到1000字的PS,该如何体现出你对所申专业的学术热情和个人能力呢?

列好提纲 掌握讲故事的能力

主文书有很多种写法,但不必通篇都是华丽的辞藻与修饰。根据你在CA(Common App)上选择的题目,可写的主题涵盖很广。但留给招生官印象最深的,除了你的兴趣爱好、课内外活动、科研实践和大大小小的奖项成就,更应该是一篇有趣的故事。讲故事的能力如果有了,一篇好文书的根基就跃然纸上了。那么要如何设置这个故事的开端、中间的冲突和最后的解决方案呢?

「1」可以从用带有冲突感的小故事引入,吸引招生官注意,然后再回到开头,介绍自己的学术背景和学术成就,最后再回到冲突中,向招生官展示自己是如何处理这种情况的以及为什么想要申请这所学校。

「2」要一直保持人格魅力,让招生官读完文章很想认识你。这个角色性格让自我的“高光时刻”展露无疑。用专业的阐述,告诉招生官你能为学校增加什么特别之处,为何你能和其他申请者区分开,你独特的个性以及兴趣爱好将使你更受欢迎。

「3」细节确实是一个好故事的关键所在,会让你的读者看到你是一个完整的人,而不仅仅是纸上的另一份成就清单。

下面小编引用塔夫斯大学(Tufts University)官网提供的优秀学生范文节选,帮助大家更好领会上述要点:

Author: Kaycee Conover

On one hot night in a dark room at the heart of Boston, I became friends with 19,580 people in one single moment. We had all journeyed to the TD Garden from wherever we were in our lives to see Tom Petty perform. I knew his music because my mother had shared it with me. It meant something to her and it meant something to me. His music meant something different to every person in that room and all those meanings, all infinite number of them, wrapped around the music notes and existed in harmony on that July night. I had to close my eyes. It was as if I could hear the heartbeats of every person in that room, pulsing along with the rhythm of the music. By sharing his music, Tom Petty gave me a striking awareness of 19,580 people that live and feel alongside each other. Tom Petty will live as long as people feel.

Lights flashing beyond my eyelids, I could feel what it was like to live more lives than just my own. Tom Petty's art described his life, but it has weaved its way into those of so many others. My own, my mother's then and when she was my age, and all the strangers around me who didn't seem so strange anymore. We all have to go through our own lives and our own challenges, but just because we have our own lessons to learn doesn't mean we are alone. I looked into the smiles of the crowd, the dancing arms and carefree yes, and realised we were all feeling something of our own. But we were feeling it all together.

With the shared heart of others, I can travel vertically through time and horizontally through space. I long to make connections and there are no boundaries that limit how this can be done, not even time and not even space. Imagine trying to count how many people have ever been inspired by the Beatles! Music is an honesty that you embrace more than escape. I sit in front of my piano for hours, copying the rhythm of until it feels right. I'll never tire of hearing another tell me how they're feeling without using any words at all and letting it become part of me. You can't hide from your feelings when someone else is telling them to you.

And so I have become a curator of feeling. I am always listening, collecting the art of others. I have stared at paintings until they stared back at me. I cry while I watch almost every film, sometimes just because the characters are nice to each other. I'm as moved by the narrative of my old American Girl Doll books as I am by Dickens. It's all swirls of feelings, of lessons from others that mirror those you need to learn yourself. Art embodies empathy and empathy has become too easy to lose touch with. Art is the same world seen from a different heart. I look at characters or creators and think, "How did you become the way you are?" I can look at others and think the same thing. And I have the chance the ask them.

Tom Petty did not write "Breakdown" just for me. Hard Promises comforts more than just me. I cannot live life from just my own perspective. Art exists in everyone. I embrace my hour-long commute to school as a chance to start conversations through the life that flows from my speakers, using old tunes to understand the world through my neighbors as we talk of our favourite colours or the abstract nature of time. My dad doesn't seem so distant when we talk about our mutual love for The Band. This is how our moments are made. This is how we find the music that surrounds all of us, all in each other.

「文章短评」这篇文章通过作者在观看Tom Petty的演出的所想所得介绍了自己对艺术和音乐的热爱,尤其在“音乐成为一种交流工具,一种让自己和世界有所联系”这一点上描述的非常成功。

一篇PS如何写得创新而“不逾矩”

「1」基于模板的内容范围创新

一篇文章可以只讲一件小事,基于选择的文章题目和常规的内容中的一项;比如只写自己参与某个比赛遇到了什么挑战,收获了什么,从而体现出自己的某些会被学校青睐的品质。

「2」忌讳基于框架外的创新

上述提到的讲故事的方法是一个很好的行文节奏和文书框架,已经涵盖了学校想要了解你的全部。有些申请者想若另辟蹊径,比如对时事大加评论,本末倒置,往往得到是坏的结果。

「3」语言不是第一位,内容最重要

学校知道,不是母语写作者,语言不是第一位;因此内容是最重要,根据PS的框架结构进行头脑风暴,选择最契合自己和选题的主题,保持严谨的态度和水准,足矣。因此要特别注意框架外的创新是需要把握好“度”的。

主文书写作常见问题

「Q」什么时候开始写?

「A」“请尽快”!许多同学第一次写作文时就觉得有必要把每件事都写得“完美”。但是,尽管准确、无误和令人信服的写作是最终稿的必要品质,但在初稿中力求完美几乎是不可能的,而且很可能会减慢你大脑中储存的优秀想法的速度。写个人陈述会比你想的要长,重要的是要留出时间多次反复审查你的工作。

「Q」大学想要看到什么样的PS?

「A」别忘了显而易见的东西——为什么要学习所选的课程,这个答案请确保包括在主文书内。对你要申请的科目充满热情,动力和注意力、可能对大学提高多元性做出贡献的技能、未来职业计划等,大学更想知道你对所申请专业的理解和喜欢。

「Q」我应该如何构造我的个人陈述?

「A」如果你具有与学校要求相关的任何技能和经验,请确保在个人陈述开始时就这么说。第一印象并不是全部,但是机智的把自我优势描绘出来,会给招生官带来更好的印象。

2020-2021年主文书题目公布

Common App官网已宣布2020-2021年论文题目与2019-2020年论文题目相同。下文附部分题目及解析——

#1 “Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, please share your story.”

「题目解析」Common Essay多次改革,这道题目自始至终一直沿用至今。是什么使你成为了独一无二的你呢?既可以写成长背景,也可以写故事。你的成长背景既可以是你成长于什么样的家庭,比如父母都是军人等等,也可以是你从小生活的环境等。无论写什么,都建议学生一定要结合自身的特点,从小事出发,从细节出发,并且有所升华。

#2 “The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience?”

「题目解析」你从失败、逆境、挑战中学到了什么,展现自我反省与成长转变,是这篇文章的亮点。分析自己的失败原因并且做出了一系列的改变(Following actions),这往往是最容易忽略的,却是招生官最想看到的。在素材选取上,不建议大家写考试失利,社团竞选失败等等这些俗套的素材,因为招生官每年会看到大量的这样的文书。

#3 “Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma — anything of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution.”

「题目解析」这道题目的核心是明确展现出当你遇到的问题后是如何处理和解决的,主要考察学生发现问题(problem-detecting)和解决问题(problem solving)的能力。所以,解决问题的过程是写作的核心重点,而不是描述问题本身。建议大家围绕学术研究、专业实习等内容来写,不太建议选择道德困境,写作度比较大,不容易举例和落到实处。

#4 “Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others.”

「题目解析」题目的重点在于在你的成长轨迹和心路历程中,筛选出一件非常具有特殊意义的经历,这个经历要么使你的思想变得更加成熟,要么给予我们重新审视自己的机会,是在阐述“个人成长和自我认知”。因此,如果没有更深层级的感悟和认知,是不建议写这个题目的。

#5 “Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more?”

「题目解析」埃默里大学(Emory University)针对此题给出了范文,供同学们学习借鉴。

The sail of the ship was a tongue. The vessel rolled over the waves of text, stammering on the punctuation marks before again finding its balance, gliding over the vowels. The seas were sometimes rough, the surface revealing the cause of such commotion: white caps spraying consonants into the surrounding ears. Where was it headed?

Language carries an intangible yet pliable kind of beauty. It is a concept that never ceases to call forth within me a renewed sense of wonderment. I often peruse through the memories of my past in an attempt to locate the origins of my attraction to the Spanish language—to understand just what lured my 7 year old mind to the seas of foreign speech. I have come to realize that maybe it wasn’t a feeling that suddenly sprung up but rather one that always existed, floating in the waters of my mind. Perhaps it was the way Spanish sounds carried throughout the air, euphonious and smooth, a stark contrast to the English sounds I had grown up hearing in Georgia. Perhaps it was my want to understand my best friend when she spoke to her Mexican parents. Perhaps it was all of the above.

Spanish words filled the air with vibrations my tongue wanted to know. After experiencing such fullness, I couldn’t help but despise vacancy. I subdued the silence and made it my duty to collect words and sounds and store them below the deck. The time that I once spent buried within the pages of novels and finger weaving with my grandmother’s yarn—was now shared with filling journals with newly learned phrases. My interest in language, however, was not limited to Spanish, although it remains my first obsession. Hangul, the Korean alphabet, was a puzzle I had taught myself how to piece together as an 11 year old yearning to familiarize myself with the foreign. The Arabic alphabet is a system I still have yet to come even close to mastering, but I try. At times, I close my eyes and embrace the touch of braille, and at others I open them to drink in the sight of hand gestures—American Sign Language.

I filled my hours with dissecting sentences and fighting my greatest adversary: time. I consumed articles, books, interviews, and dramas on my journey to understand new cultures and manners of communication. The dramatics of El Clon and Eva Luna plagued my speech, and my then 10 year old being was charged with awe. I carried language on my tongue, and in response, it carried me. Where was it headed? Now only one of two non-native speakers enrolled in my AP Spanish Literature class, I can still say that my love for the language has yet to wane. I only wish others shared such a passion. Those that do not care for such sound exploration reflect a disinterest that eventually manifests into ignorance. With every passing day, the world shrinks in size, and I see it only fit that we adapt by learning the tongues of our neighbors to increase our sense of unity. Nelson Mandela once said, “If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.” I continue on aboard the ship cruising through the letter fused waters. Where was it headed?

I aim to cultivate understanding—to fill the gaping aperture between cultures with appreciation.

Language is my way of doing so.

所以,主文书选材切忌“假大空”,而是要选取生活中简单的事,对你重要的事,而且要是小事。能从小事中挖掘深刻的见解,以小见大,才是好文。

主文书应在情景描写中突出细节。写经历的文章最容易情景化,让招生官仿佛置身于当时的情境之中,和你同喜同悲。注意词句的感染力和情节的推进,把高潮处理好,循序渐进的把读者带入你的故事中。文章语言要精确自然表达。无需刻意,只需要讲述一个简单动人的故事,去表达你的某个观点或展示某方面特征即可。

综上,一篇好的文书往往需要不断打磨,高水平的文书老师能够高屋建瓴,不能仅从文书角度来看文书写得好坏,还要从全局、从整个申请角度来看。

目前2021年入学申请已启动,老师们将带领同学们先从简历入手,梳理各项活动;通过一对一地沟通,找到每个人身上的“闪光之处”。在文书申请上有困难的同学,请及时联系通透教育的专业老师。

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